Mannatech Science

NutriVerus powder

NutriVerus™ powder
Glyconutritional supplement with natural, food-sourced vitamins and minerals.* Naturally gluten free. Suitable for vegetarians.

NutriVerus™ Powder: Technical Information
NutriVerus Powder Product Label Information

 


    

Ingredients

OpenAloe vera (including Manapol®)

Aloe vera (including Manapol®)

     Aloe vera For centuries, the plant aloe vera has been used by cultures for its beneficial effects on human health (1). Today aloe vera gel continues to be used in supplements, foods, beverages, and cosmetics. Aloe leaves consist of two major parts, the outer leaf epidermis and the inner leaf gel, which are very different in their chemical composition and properties. Aloe gel is obtained from the inner portion of the leaves. Aloe gel is rich in nutrients and contains an abundant supply of glycoproteins and mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, fucose, glucosamine, fructose, rhamnose and xylose (2).

Much of the health benefits observed by the use of aloe vera gel may be attributed to its high molecular weight polysaccharides. Before a process was developed to stabilize aloe vera gel or extracts, fresh preparations were regarded as being required for any therapeutic efficacy (3). It has now been shown that careful drying of aloe vera gel can retain the polysaccharide content important for producing many of its health benefits (4).     
Manapol
® is a polysaccharide found in aloe vera gel. A unique ingredient exclusive to Mannatech, Incorporated, Manapol is extracted from fresh, washed and filtered gel by a specialized extraction method that yields insoluble fibers and stabilized, high molecular weight (MW) soluble fibers rich in long-chain mannose sugars—beta-(1-4)-acetylated polymannans. Many attribute the benefits of topically and orally-applied aloe vera gel to its polymannan content. The MW of over 20% of Manapol is >800,000. It also contains the monosaccharide sugars glucuronic acid, glucose, galacturonic acid, xylose, galactose, glucosamine, fucose, rhamnose and arabinose, and small amounts of protein, calcium, potassium and sulfate (2),(5),(6). 

 

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1.  The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 1996.

2.  Duncan, C., Ramberg, J., and Sinnott, R. Striking differences in Aloe vera gel carbohydrate composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions following processing will not be addressed by dietary supplement GMPs. Poster Presentation at the 5th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 17-20, 2008, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.

3.  Gjerstad G, Riner TD. Current status of aloe as a cure-all. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1968;140:58-64.

4.  Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1745-55.

5. Luta G, McAnalley B. Aloe vera: chemical composition and methods used to determine its presence in commercial products. GlycoScience & Nutrition 2005;6:1-12.

6.  Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 22-25, 2009, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.

Last updated June, 2012

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OpenArabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)

Arabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)

Arabinogalactans are a class of long, densely branched high-molecular weight polysaccharides extracted for commercial uses from the bark of the Eastern and Western Larch trees, Larix larcinia and Larix occidentalis. Their monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucose and mannose (1). Larch arabinogalactans are considered a good source of soluble dietary fiber. Arabinogalactans are common in many food plants, including corn, carrots, tomatoes, pears, wheat and red wine (2)

The amount of arabinogalactan absorbed through the intestine after an oral dose is unclear. Non-absorbed arabinogalactan is fermented by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (3),(4). Larch arabinogalactans are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR172.610).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Ambrotose® Complex capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex powder
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  EM•PACT®
   •  Manna-C™ capsules
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  Phyt-Aloe® capsules or powder
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

References

References

 

     1.    Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine's 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, San Diego, California.January 22-25, 2009. 2009.
     2.    Cui SW. Polysaccharide Gums from Agricultural Products: Processing, Structures & Functionality. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 2001.
     3.    Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
     4.    Kelly GS. 'Larch arabinogalactan: clinical relevance of a novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide. Altern.Med Rev 1999;4:96-103.

Last updated March, 2013

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OpenBiotin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Biotin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Biotin is a water-soluble B complex vitamin required for many reactions involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins (1). Biotin is found in many foods such as liver, egg yolk, green vegetables and whole grains.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 300 μg biotin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000. 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenCalcium (from whey mineral complex, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Calcium (from whey mineral complex, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Over 99% of total body calcium is found in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle and the intracellular fluid. Calcium is used for muscle contraction, blood vessel constriction and relaxation, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and nervous system signaling. A constant level of calcium is needed to be maintained in the body in order for these processes to function properly. The body gets the calcium it needs through food and by being extracted from bones. Calcium-rich foods include dairy products and dark, leafy greens. For dietary calcium, vitamin D is important and recommended for optimal calcium absorption through the intestine. Calcium extraction from bones occurs when dietary calcium is insufficient and can lead to weakened bone structure (1).
     Many individuals in the U.S. consume inadequate amounts of calcium. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1,000 mg calcium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Whey mineral complex is a concentrated source of calcium and other minerals obtained from filtering whey. Besides calcium, it includes essential minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron. It can be used as an additive for various foods such as drinks for the purpose of providing nutrition. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers whey mineral concentrate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for its intended use and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No. 52).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (2). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (3).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000. 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenCholine (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Choline (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Choline is a nutrient related to the water-soluble B-complex vitamins that is necessary for the structure and function of all cells. It is important for the structural integrity of cell membranes and proper functioning of the brain, as well as required for a number of metabolic reactions that take place in the body. Humans can synthesize choline themselves, or they can consume choline through the diet. It can be found in high amounts in foods such as egg yolk, peanuts, fish, milk and a variety of meats and vegetables. Dietary choline is absorbed from the small intestine and travels through the bloodstream to all organs and tissues of the body. No adverse effects have been seen with choline intakes at the amounts present in our products (1).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (2). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenChromium (from mustard sprout)

Chromium (from mustard sprout)

Chromium is an essential trace element that plays an important role in normal blood sugar regulation. Sources of dietary chromium include high-bran cereals, meats, poultry, fish and some beers and red wines. Only small amounts (<2.5%) of dietary chromium are absorbed through the intestine (1).
     No adverse effects have been associated with chromium intake from food or supplements (1). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 120 μg chromium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenCopper (from mustard sprout, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Copper (from mustard sprout, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Copper is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and is present in small amounts in drinking water. Contributors of dietary copper include organ meats, seafood, nuts, wheat bran cereals and whole grain products. Copper is a component of multiple enzymes and is involved in numerous biochemical reactions in human cells, such as the reduction of molecular oxygen, the regulation of gene expression, mitochondrial function/cellular metabolism and the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg copper for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     The risk of adverse effects resulting from excess intake of copper from food, water and supplements appears to be very low in adults, but may be more likely in young children. Excess copper intake can lead to gastrointestinal disturbances and possible liver damage (1).
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown vegetables, including broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8. 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenFolic acid (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Folic acid (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Folate is a water-soluble B complex vitamin that is used in the human body for synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids. Food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, legumes and liver.
      Folate is well tolerated in amounts found in fortified foods and supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 μg folate for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

 

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000

Last updated December, 2012

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OpenGum tragacanth

Gum tragacanth

Gum tragacanth comes from the stems and branches of the flowering plant Astragalus gummifer. The raw gum is made up of a mixture of two polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid (1). Gum tragacanth has been approved for use in pharmaceuticals in the U.S. since 1820 and in foods since 1925 (2). Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon (3). Test tube studies have demonstrated that gum tragacanth can be digested by a number of bacteria that inhabit the human colon, including the beneficial Bifidobacteria species (4),(5). Gum tragacanth is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is commonly added to foods (21CFR184.1351).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Ambrotose AO® capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex powder
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  EM•PACT® sports drink
   •  Emprizone® gel
   •  FIRM with Ambrotose® cream
   •  Manna-C™ capsules
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  Phyt-Aloe® capsules or powder
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

References

References

1. Anderson DM, Howlett JF, McNab CG. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.). Food Addit Contam 1985;2:231-5.

2.  Anderson DM. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives. Food Addit Contam 1989;6:1-12.

3.  Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.

4.  Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.

5.  Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.

Last updated November 2013

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OpenInositol (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Inositol (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Inositol is an organic compound closely related to glucose. Inositol can be found in foods such as bran, nuts, beans and fruit (1). Human breast milk is also a rich source of inositol. Inositol can be synthesized in the body to become essential components of cell membrane phospholipids (2). It is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (3).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (4). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (5).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database.
http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

4. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

5. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenIodine (from mustard sprout)

Iodine (from mustard sprout)

Iodine is an essential element required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, normal functioning of the thyroid gland, a gland actively involved in the regulation of metabolism, requires iodine. Humans obtain iodine from their diets. Iodine deficiency is rare in industrialized countries such as the United States due to the enrichment of table salt with iodine. Under normal conditions, the absorption of dietary iodine is greater than 90 percent (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 150 μg iodine for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenIron (from mustard sprout, rice bran, rice fiber, whey mineral complex and organic vegetable powder)

Iron (from mustard sprout, rice bran, rice fiber, whey mineral complex and organic vegetable powder)

Iron is an essential mineral that primarily functions in the movement of oxygen from the environment to the tissues. There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Sources of heme iron include meat, fish and poultry. Sources of non-heme iron include beans, lentils, flours, cereals and grains. Iron levels are tightly regulated in the human body, mainly by controlling the amount of iron absorbed from food. The proportion of dietary iron absorbed is determined by the iron requirement of the individual; more iron present in the body means less iron is absorbed through the intestine. Heme iron is more easily absorbed than non-heme iron (1).
     The risk of adverse effects from food sources of iron is low. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 18 mg iron for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (4). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (5).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Whey mineral complex is a concentrated source of calcium and other minerals obtained from filtering whey. Besides calcium, it includes essential minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron. It can be used as an additive for various foods such as drinks for the purpose of providing nutrition. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers whey mineral concentrate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for its intended use and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No. 52).
     Organic vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown vegetables, including broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

4. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

5. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000. 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenMagnesium (from whey mineral complex, rice bran, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Magnesium (from whey mineral complex, rice bran, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Magnesium is an essential mineral nutrient for human life. Magnesium ions are essential to all living cells, but nearly 50% is found within the bones where they play a major role in bone and mineral homeostasis. Magnesium is also important for many cellular reactions such as energy generation, cell membrane stabilization and protein activation. Food sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, meat, starches and milk. Intestinal absorption of dietary magnesium in a typical diet is approximately 50 percent (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 mg magnesium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Magnesium, when ingested as a naturally occurring substance in foods, has not been demonstrated to exert any adverse effects. However, adverse effects, such as mild gastrointestinal disturbances, have been observed with excess magnesium intake from nonfood sources (1).
     Whey mineral complex is a concentrated source of calcium and other minerals obtained from filtering whey. Besides calcium, it includes essential minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron. It can be used as an additive for various foods such as drinks for the purpose of providing nutrition. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers whey mineral concentrate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for its intended use and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No. 52).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (2). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (3).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown vegetables, including broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenManganese (from mustard sprout, rice bran, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Manganese (from mustard sprout, rice bran, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Manganese is an essential nutrient that activates a number of enzymes involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Dietary manganese can be found in grain products, vegetables and beverages such as tea. Only a small percentage of dietary manganese is absorbed through the intestine (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg manganese for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (4). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (5).
     Organic vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown vegetables, including broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

4. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

5. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenNatural flavor(s)

Natural flavor(s)

Natural flavors are oils or extracts containing the flavoring constituents derived from a variety of sources. The natural flavors in Mannatech's products may be derived from spices, fruits or fruit juices, vegetables or vegetable juices, herbs, bark, buds, roots, leaves or similar plant materials, or dairy products. The significant function of such ingredients in foods or supplements is for flavor rather than nutrition (21CFR501.22).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  EM•PACT® sports drink
   •  GlycoSlim® chocolate meal replacement
   •  GlycoSlim® vanilla meal replacement
   •  ImmunoSTART® tablets
   •  MannaBears™ supplement
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

   

Last updated November 2013

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OpenNiacin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Niacin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinamide. Niacin is a precursor to the most central electron carrier substances in living cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), thus functioning in many metabolic pathways (1). Foods that contain niacin include beans, liver, fish, poultry and cereal grains.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 20 mg niacin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenOrganic fruit and vegetable powders

Organic fruit and vegetable powders

Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References
OpenPantothenic acid (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Pantothenic acid (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is an essential B complex vitamin that is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), a molecule that is involved in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates and proteins (1). Rich food sources of pantothenic acid include chicken, beef, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products, liver, kidney, egg yolk, broccoli and whole grains. In commercial supplement products, pantothenic acid is available as calcium or sodium D-pantothenate or as pantothenol. Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 10 mg pantothenic acid for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000. 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenPhosphorus (from whey mineral complex, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Phosphorus (from whey mineral complex, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Phosphorus The second most abundant mineral in the human body, the majority of phosphorus is localized in the bones and teeth.  Phosphorus is involved in all aspects of human function, including fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, hormone secretion, protein synthesis, and RNA and DNA synthesis.  Phosphorus binds with lipids to form phospholipids, primary constituents of all cell membranes (1).
     Whey mineral complex is a concentrated source of calcium and other minerals obtained from filtering whey. Besides calcium, it includes essential minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron. It can be used as an additive for various foods such as drinks for the purpose of providing nutrition. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers whey mineral concentrate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for its intended use and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No. 52).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (2). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (3).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Whey mineral complex is a concentrated source of calcium and other minerals obtained from filtering whey. Besides calcium, it includes essential minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron. It can be used as an additive for various foods such as drinks for the purpose of providing nutrition. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers whey mineral concentrate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for its intended use and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No. 52).
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenPhytosterols (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Phytosterols (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Phytosterols (PS) are fats present in plants--mostly in plant oils, nuts and seeds. Because the human body cannot produce PS, they must be obtained through the diet. Epidemiologic studies suggest that phytosterol intake supports good health (1). Processing of plant oils typically reduces their PS content (1). The average consumption of PS in industrialized Western countries is low, about 78 mg/day. Asian countries consume an average of 4 times that amount, about 400 mg/day (2).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Awad AB, Fink CS. J Nutr 2000;130:2127-30.

2. Ovesna Z, Vachalkova A, Horvathova K. Neoplasma 2004;51:407-14.

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenPotassium (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Potassium (from rice fiber and rice bran)

Potassium is the primary intracellular cation (positive ion) in humans, required for the normal functioning of all cells in the body. It is necessary for regulating the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction and blood flow. Fruits and non-grain vegetables are rich in potassium. Potassium citrate and potassium phosphate are the two forms of potassium naturally found in foods, while potassium chloride is the form most commonly added to processed foods and used in dietary supplements. In healthy individuals, approximately 85% of dietary potassium is absorbed through the intestine. Most potassium leaves the body through the urine; however, heat exposure and exercise can cause increased loss of potassium via sweat (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Daily Reference Value (DRV) of 3,500 mg potassium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). DRVs are a set of dietary references for energy-producing nutrients, cholesterol, sodium and potassium that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. DRVs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (2). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000. 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenRiboflavin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Riboflavin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B2, which is involved in numerous metabolic processes and energy production in the body (1).Good dietary sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, enriched cereals/grains, meats, liver and green vegetables. Riboflavin is commonly found in multivitamin and vitamin B complex preparations.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.7 mg riboflavin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     The limited capacity of humans to absorb orally administered riboflavin limits its potential for harm. No adverse effects associated with riboflavin consumption from food or supplements have been reported (1).
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000. 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenRice bran

Rice bran

Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (1). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

2. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated June 2014

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OpenRice fiber

Rice fiber

Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References
OpenSelenium (from mustard sprout)

Selenium (from mustard sprout)

Selenium is a trace mineral found in soil, water and some foods. The selenium content of food varies depending on the selenium content of the soil where the animal was raised or the plant was grown. Selenium is an essential element in several metabolic pathways and functions largely through its association with proteins, known as selenoproteins. Known biological functions of selenium include defense against oxidative stress and regulation of thyroid hormone action. Absorption of selenium is efficient with more than 90 percent of selenomethionine, the major dietary form of the element, being absorbed through the intestine (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 70 μg selenium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenSodium

Sodium

Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in humans. Sodium is necessary for regulating the water content of blood and other bodily fluids and is transported across cell membranes to regulate the transmission of nerve impulses and heart activity. Salt (sodium chloride) is the primary form of sodium in the diet. Other forms of sodium found in food include monosodium glutamate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite, sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate. The amount of dietary sodium that is absorbed through the intestine is approximately 98% (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Daily Reference Value (DRV) of 2,400 mg sodium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). DRVs are a set of dietary references for energy-producing nutrients, cholesterol, sodium and potassium that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. DRVs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     It is well-recognized that the current intake of sodium for most individuals in the United States exceeds recommended doses. The most common adverse effect seen with high sodium intake is an increase in blood pressure (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenStevia extract (leaf)

Stevia extract (leaf)

Stevia extract is derived from the leaves of the plant, Stevia rebaudiana. Stevia extracts are used as natural sweeteners and as dietary supplements in a number of countries, including the United States (1). Much of the sweetness of stevia leaves is attributed to the presence of the glycoside stevioside, which is about 300 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar). Stevia also contains tannins and phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.

2. Leung A, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1996.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenThiamin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Thiamin (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Thiamin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, also known as vitamin B1. It functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids (1). Dietary sources of thiamin include beef, pork, breads, seeds and whole grain cereals. Dietary thiamin is minimally absorbed through the intestine.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.5 mg thiamin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenVitamin A (as beta-carotene)

Vitamin A (as beta-carotene)

Vitamin A, also called retinol, is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for humans. Adequate intake is important for normal vision and immune function. Dietary vitamin A can be provided as both preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids that are precursors to vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A is abundant in animal-derived foods like liver, kidney, eggs, and dairy products. Carotenoids, like beta-carotene, are found in darkly colored fruits and vegetables. Preformed vitamin A is efficiently absorbed through the intestines, while carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact or cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. The proportion of beta-carotene converted to vitamin A decreases as beta-carotene intake increases, limiting the risk of vitamin A toxicity (1).
     Dietary preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) or international units (IU). In the U.S., 1 RAE is equal to 3.33 IU vitamin A. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 5,000 IUs vitamin A for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

Beta-carotene, also called provitamin A, is a member of a group of plant-produced compounds called carotenoids, which serve as precursors to vitamin A. Beta-carotene is a potent antioxidant. The ultimate source of all vitamin A is from the carotenes, and beta-carotene has the highest vitamin A activity (1). Beta-carotene is particularly abundant in orange vegetables and fruit, and may be directly added to foods as a vitamin supplement (2).
     Carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact, or be cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. There is no Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for beta-carotene or other provitamin A carotenoids. However, dietary provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). The RDA for RAEs is 900 µg/day for men and 700 µg/day for women (3). Beta-carotene supplementation in humans is likely safe over long periods of time.

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Food and Drugs. Title 21, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. 1999. 21CFR. Ref Type: Bill/Resolution

Last updated April, 2013

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OpenVitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin extracted from baker’s yeast fermentation)

Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin extracted from baker’s yeast fermentation)

Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is commonly found in a variety of animal foods such as fish, shellfish, meat and dairy products. Synthetic vitamin B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations and added to supplements and fortified foods such as cereals. An adequate supply of vitamin B12 is essential to maintain healthy nerve cell and red blood cell function, as well as for folate utilization. The average fractional absorption of vitamin B12 from food by healthy individuals is approximately 50 percent (1).
     No adverse effects have been associated with vitamin B12 intake from food or supplements in healthy individuals (1). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 6 μg vitamin B12 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Cyanocobalamin is the principal form of vitamin B12 for commercial use in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Once absorbed through the intestine, cyanocobalamin is converted to the active forms of vitamin B12 in the body. No adverse effects have been associated with B12 intake from food or supplements in healthy individuals at amounts far exceeding the recommended daily value (1). 

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000 

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenVitamin B6 (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Vitamin B6 (from baker’s yeast, rice bran, rice fiber and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and the release of glucose from glycogen (1). Major sources of vitamin B6 include fortified, ready-to-eat cereals; mixed foods (including sandwiches) with meat, fish or poultry as the main ingredient; white potatoes and other starchy vegetables; and non-citrus fruits. Vitamin B6 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
     Vitamin B6 is generally considered safe in adults and children when used appropriately at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg vitamin B6 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (3). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (4).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003

3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

4. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenVitamin C (from acerola cherry and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Vitamin C (from acerola cherry and organic fruit and vegetable powders)

Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble vitamin found mainly in fruits and vegetables, particularly in citrus fruits such as oranges. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and thereby demonstrates potent antioxidant activity. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to the disease scurvy, which involves the deterioration of elastic tissue, demonstrating the important role of ascorbic acid in the synthesis of connective tissues such as collagen in bones (1). Dietary vitamin C is efficiently absorbed through the intestine.
     Vitamin C is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8013). The U.S. FDA has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 60 mgs vitamin C for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Acerola cherry is the fruit of the small tree, Malpighia glabra or Malpighia punicifolia. Acerola is grown in tropical regions of the Americas. The fruit is known for being one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and also contains vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and polyphenols, such as anthocyanins. Acerola fruit extract acts as an antioxidant, likely due to the presence of some of these nutrients (2). Most acerola fruit is processed into fruit products, such as jams, jellies and juices, or added to dietary supplements as a source of vitamin C (3).
     Organic fruit and vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown fruits and vegetables, including strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, cranberry, broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.

3. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenVitamin D (as plant source ergocalciferol)

Vitamin D (as plant source ergocalciferol)

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in two physiologically relevant forms, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Ergocalciferol is synthesized by plants, while cholecalciferol is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Some foods may also be fortified with vitamin D, such as milk and breakfast cereals. Current average daily intakes of vitamin D for Americans are well below suggested adequate intakes (1), and much of the world’s population is deficient in this important vitamin (2).
    The main function of vitamin D is to regulate serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals. By influencing the absorption of calcium, vitamin D helps to form and maintain strong bones and teeth (3),(4). Vitamin D supplementation helps prevent falls and maintain physical performance in the elderly (4),(5). Adequate vitamin D intake may also be important for maintaining immune health (6),(7), nervous system health (8), may help improve mood during the winter months (9),(10) and improve overall quality of life (11).
    Vitamin D is generally well tolerated at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 international units (IUs) vitamin D for adults and children 4 or more years of age. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (% DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
    According to the Endocrine Society’s Vitamin D Clinical Practice Guidelines, published in June 2011, individuals who are at risk for vitamin D deficiencies should as their physician to have their blood tested for the vitamin D metabolite [25(OH)D]. For individuals with blood 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/L, higher amounts of vitamin D intake are suitable: children ages 1–18 may need 600–1,000 IU daily,adults >18 age may need 1,500–2,000 IU vitamin D daily (12).

 Many Americans Would Benefit from Intake of Supplemental Vitamin D Higher than Current RDAs


This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 2010.

2. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos.Int 2009;20:1807-20.

3. Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:621-8..

4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. 2010.

5. Annweiler C, Montero-Odasso M, Schott AM, Berrut G, Fantino B, Beauchet O. Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects. J Neuroeng.Rehabil. 2010;7:50.

6. van Etten E, Mathieu C. Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005;97:93-101.

7. Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, Hornig DH. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr 2007;98 Suppl 1:S29-S35. .

8. McCann JC, Ames BN. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J 2008;22:982-1001.

9. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence? Nutr Rev 2009;67:481-92. 10. .

10. Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;135:319-23. .

11. Norman AW, Bouillon R. Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.) 2010;235:1034-45.

12. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1911-30.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenVitamin E (from vegetable oil, rice bran and rice fiber)

Vitamin E (from vegetable oil, rice bran and rice fiber)

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. In foods, vitamin E exists primarily as mixed tocopherols. Foods that contain vitamin E include: eggs, fortified cereals, fruit, green leafy vegetables, meat, nuts/nut oils, poultry, vegetable oils and whole grains. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. While the precise rate of vitamin E absorption is not known with certainty, it is believed to be variable and low. Reported rates of absorption of vitamin E following intake with food have varied from as high as 51%-86% to as low as 21%-29% (1). All forms of vitamin E, including all of the tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues, are absorbed through the intestine in a similar manner.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 30 international units (IUs) vitamin E for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (2). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (3).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.

This ingredient can be found in the following product:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000

2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenWakame (Undaria pinnatifida) algae extract

Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) algae extract

 

Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) is a type of edible brown algae that has been consumed for thousands of years, particularly in Asia (1). In Japanese and other Asian cultures, the ingestion of brown seaweed in the diet averages up to 3 g per day (1). It is used in condiments and soup bases or fresh in salads, rolls or stews for its nutritional content, flavor and texture. Undaria is also used in Chinese and Ayurvedic (Indian) traditional medicine (2). Undaria pinnatifida is rich in fucoidans, sulfated polysaccharides that contain large amounts of fucose and other monosaccharides, including galactose, mannose and glucose (3),(4). In addition to being largely made up of soluble carbohydrates and edible protein, Undaria also contains vitamins A, C and E; B vitamins and some trace elements (such as iodine) (5).
 
Undaria is partially digested in the human gut (6), and test tube studies have demonstrated that fibers from brown algae can be fermented by human fecal bacteria (7). The serum uptake of fucoidans has not been assessed to date. Undaria pinnatifida has been consumed as a food and traditional medicine in Asia for thousands of years, indicating a safe precedence for human consumption (1), (8).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

 

           1. Fitton JH. Brown marine algae: A survey of therapeutic potentials. Alt Comp Therapy 2003;9:29-33.
            2. Mori H, Kamei H, Nishide E, Nisizawa K. Sugar constituents of some suplhated polysaccharides from the sporophylls of wakame and their biological activities. In: Hoppe HA, Levring T, eds. Marine Algae in Pharmaceutical Science. New York & Berlin: Walter de Gruyter 1982:109-22.
            3. Koo J-G. Structural characterization of purified fucoidan from Laminaria religiosa, sporophylls of Undaria pinnatifida, Hizikia fusirome and Sagassum fulvellum in Korea. J.Korean Fish.Soc. 1997;30:128-31.
            4. Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine's 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, San Diego, California.January 22-25, 2009.
            5. Simpson BB, Ogorzaly MC. Economic Botany: Plants in Our World. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
            6. Yamada Y, Miyoshi T, Tanada S, Imaki M. Digestibility and energy availability of wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) seaweed in Japanese. Jap J Hygiene 1991;46.
            7. Michel C, Lahaye M, Bonnet C, Mabeau S, Barry JL. In vitro fermentation by human faecal bacteria of total and purified dietary fibres from brown seaweeds. Br J Nutr 1996;75:263-80.
            8. Aaronson S. Algae. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 2000:231-49.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenWhey mineral complex

Whey mineral complex

Whey mineral complex is a concentrated source of calcium and other minerals obtained from filtering whey. Besides calcium, it includes essential minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron. It can be used as an additive for various foods such as drinks for the purpose of providing nutrition. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers whey mineral concentrate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for its intended use and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No. 52).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  OsoLean® powder
 

References

References

   

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenZinc (from mustard sprout, rice bran, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Zinc (from mustard sprout, rice bran, rice fiber and organic vegetable powder)

Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the functioning of approximately 100 different enzymes in the body. It plays a vital role in many biological processes, such as the maintenance of protein structure, the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of hormones. Zinc is abundant in red meats, certain seafood and whole grains, and many breakfast cereals are fortified with zinc. The proportion of dietary zinc absorbed is determined by the amount of zinc already present in the body, with higher absorption occurring when zinc status is low (1).
     Zinc is regarded as relatively safe and generally well tolerated when taken at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 15 mg zinc for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).
     Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin (4). Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (5).
     Rice fiber is the soluble and insoluble fiber obtained from the bran layer of the rice kernel.
     Organic vegetable powders are obtained from organically grown vegetables, including broccoli, tomato, carrot, spinach and kale.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

4. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.

5. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

Last updated April, 2012

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Formulation Ingredients

OpenDicalcium phosphate

Dicalcium phosphate

Dicalcium phosphate (calcium phosphate, dibasic) is a white, odorless, tasteless powder used both as an excipient and as a source of calcium in dietary supplements. It is widely used in oral pharmaceutical products, food products and toothpastes and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic and nonirritant material (1). Calcium phosphate, dibasic is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  GlycoSlim® chocolate meal replacement
   •  GlycoSlim® vanilla meal replacement
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated April, 2013

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About Ingredients

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* This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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